10 July 2023

What are the assistive technologies available for people with visual impairments?

Visual impairment can significantly impact an individual’s ability to access and interact with the world around them. Fortunately, advancements in technology have led to the development of various assistive technologies designed to enhance the independence and quality of life for people with visual impairments. 

I. Screen Readers and Text-to-Speech Technologies:

Screen readers are essential tools that convert on-screen text into synthesized speech, enabling individuals with visual impairments to access digital content. These technologies are widely available on computers, smartphones, and tablets. Subheadings under this section include:


Computer-based Screen Readers:

Computer-based screen readers like JAWS (Job Access With Speech), NVDA (NonVisual Desktop Access), and VoiceOver (for Mac) are popular choices. They provide comprehensive navigation through web pages, documents, and applications, and some even support Braille displays.


Mobile Device Screen Readers:

Screen readers for smartphones and tablets, such as TalkBack for Android and VoiceOver for iOS devices, allow users to access and interact with apps, messages, and other content on their devices.


II. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Software:

OCR software is designed to convert printed text into digital, editable formats that can be accessed through assistive technologies. Subheadings under this section include:


Standalone OCR Scanners:

Devices like handheld scanners or portable cameras with OCR capabilities allow users to capture text from physical documents, books, or labels and have it read aloud by a screen reader.


Mobile OCR Apps:

Numerous smartphone apps, like KNFB Reader and Seeing AI, provide OCR functionality on the go, enabling users to identify and read text from various sources, such as restaurant menus, signs, and product labels.


III. Screen Magnifiers:

Screen magnification software enlarges content on computer screens, making it more accessible to those with low vision. Subheadings under this section include:


Desktop Screen Magnifiers:

Desktop magnifiers like ZoomText and SuperNova allow users to increase the size of text, images, and graphics, while also providing customization options for color contrast and cursor enhancements.


Mobile Screen Magnifiers:

Built-in screen magnification features on smartphones and tablets, like Zoom on iOS and Magnification on Android, provide a quick and accessible way to enlarge content on mobile devices.


IV. Braille Displays and Embossers:

For individuals who are proficient in Braille, Braille displays and embossers offer tactile access to digital content. Subheadings under this section include:


Braille Displays:

These devices connect to computers or mobile devices and convert on-screen text into Braille characters, allowing users to read and interact with digital content using their fingers.


Braille Embossers:

Braille embossers produce raised tactile output on paper, allowing users to create physical Braille copies of digital documents.

V. Wayfinding and Navigation Systems:

Navigating through unfamiliar environments can be challenging for people with visual impairments. Wayfinding and navigation technologies provide assistance in this regard. Subheadings under this section include:


Indoor Navigation Apps:

Apps like BlindSquare and Nearby Explorer use GPS and Bluetooth technology to provide audio cues and instructions for navigating indoor spaces, such as airports, shopping malls, and public buildings.


Outdoor Navigation Apps:

Outdoor navigation apps like Seeing AI and Lazarillo enable users to safely navigate streets, sidewalks, and pedestrian crossings, providing information about nearby points of interest.


VI. Auditory Assistive Technologies:

In addition to visual impairment, some individuals may also experience challenges in hearing. Auditory assistive technologies cater to those with both visual and hearing impairments. Subheadings under this section include:


Auditory Feedback in Assistive Devices:

Many assistive devices, such as screen readers and OCR systems, provide auditory feedback alongside visual output. This feature ensures that users with visual impairments and hearing loss can still access information effectively.


Tactile Feedback:

Some assistive technologies incorporate tactile feedback, allowing users to feel vibrations or specific patterns to interpret information. Tactile feedback can be particularly helpful for individuals who are deaf-blind, providing them with alternative ways to interact with digital content.


VII. Voice Command and Virtual Assistants:

Voice recognition technology has become increasingly sophisticated, making it an essential feature for assistive devices. Subheadings under this section include:


Voice Command Systems:

Voice commands can be used to control various aspects of a device or application, allowing users with visual impairments to navigate interfaces, dictate text, and perform tasks without relying solely on touch or vision.


Virtual Assistants:

Virtual assistants like Amazon’s Alexa, Apple’s Siri, and Google Assistant provide voice-activated support for a wide range of tasks, from setting reminders and sending messages to accessing information on the internet. These assistants can significantly enhance independence for individuals with visual impairments.

VIII. Audio Description and Accessible Media:

Audio description is a crucial component of accessibility for individuals with visual impairments. It involves providing narrated descriptions of visual elements during movies, television shows, and live performances. Subheadings under this section include:


Audio Descriptive Services:

Streaming platforms and theaters are increasingly offering audio-described content, enabling users with visual impairments to enjoy movies and performances with enriched auditory descriptions of scenes and actions.


Accessible Ebooks and Audiobooks:

Digital books are often available in accessible formats, such as e-books with reflowable text and audiobooks, ensuring that readers with visual impairments can enjoy literature and educational materials.



Assistive technologies have revolutionized the lives of people with visual impairments, empowering them to engage with the world more independently. From screen readers to Braille displays and navigation systems, these innovative tools continue to evolve, making technology more inclusive and accessible for all individuals, regardless of their visual abilities.

Narayan Seva Sansthan offers various programs that cater to the specific needs of people with visual impairments, such as providing free eye check-ups, distributing free aids like spectacles and Braille kits, and conducting surgeries to restore sight whenever possible. Additionally, the organization also focuses on skill development and vocational training to empower individuals with visual impairments to lead independent and productive lives.