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What is Disability and its Types?
  13 May'2020

 

What is Disability

Disability is a term associated with some specially-abled people who sustain a condition that prevents him/her from doing things in the same way as the other people around him. A person can suffer these conditions from multiple sources, they can vary from certain limitations since his birth due to the manifestation of an abnormality in his gene to a horrific incident like war or accident which gives many people some bad memories which they have to live with for the entirety of their life. Examples of such difficulties can vary from functional impairments like the visually impaired, hearing impairedness, a problem in speaking to structural impairments like the absence of limbs.


As defined by the Constitution of Disabled People’s International in 1981, “the loss or limitation of physical, mental or sensory function on a long-term or permanent basis” is called Impairment. They have defined Disablement as “the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the normal life of the community on an equal level with others due to physical and social barriers”.


Over the years, many inventions and discoveries have been done to make the lives of such specially-abled people a little bit easier. Things have been created to support those people to get a little help in their day to day activities. People without limbs are helped by prosthetic limbs, people with visual impairments are assisted by magnifying glasses or Braille. People who suffer from hearing problems get their much-needed help through the use of hearing aids and sign language; through these, they can understand what the other is trying to say. People who have trouble in mobility often use crutches which help them to walk and people with more serious conditions use wheelchairs to move around, motorized wheelchairs have been a great help since its invention.


Disability is not just a physical problem, but it refers to the interactions of society with the specially-abled members who reside in it. Intensive support and care are needed to make the environment around him more be void of any social barrier. PwD has similar needs like normal people, they need medication to be safe from the life-threatening viruses. It has been found that people who suffer from such disabilities face many participation restrictions in terms of health and reintegration services.


Types of Disabilities

 

A person can suffer from different types of disabilities, they can range from Impairments to one’s intellect to his physical features. A person can face issues like cognitive, neurological, psychiatric to neurological. the problems may even be a combination of those mentioned above. It is not a must that the people will suffer from these issues all the time, but they show their effects time and again. Most of these issues happen to be permanent but with intensive care and support, they have a chance of returning to normal ways. These impairments significantly diminish one’s capacity to communicate with other people, to have social interaction with them and most importantly these disability types restricts ones’ ability to learn and be mobile.

With proper care and help and access to aids, these activity limitations can be overcome, and the specially-abled person can lead a more fruitful life.

Disability of a person can be categorized in several parts, namely intellectual, neurological,
physical, psychiatric, and sensory.

 

Intellectual disability – A person having an intellectual disability (ID) is seen to have low intelligence or rational ability which is evident in their lack of skills for the basic day to day activities. People with this problem take a considerable amount of time to learn new activities. Down syndrome is one such intellectual
disability which happens due to abnormal division of cells, from chromosome 21. This unwanted accumulation of the genetic material causes developmental changes and shows the symptoms of Down Syndrome. This disability has been known to make people mentally challenged.


Neurological and Cognitive Disorders – People acquire this type of disability throughout their lifetime, either by a bad brain injury or multiple sclerosis. In multiple sclerosis, the cells in a body are attacked by its immunity system, thus creating a problem in communication between a body and its brain.


Physical Disability – It is the most common type of disability found among specially- abled people. These issues can range from the circulatory system to the nervous system and also the respiratory system. Cerebral palsy is one such disability that happens because of brain damage and results in problems in movement. The symptoms of such a disability can be seen since birth.


Psychiatric disability – Such disorders in a person gives rise to anxiety disorders, depression, or various kinds of phobias in a person.


Sensory disability – People who have hearing and speech impairment, fall under this type.


Narayan Seva Sansthan always works and try to provide the necessary help to the specially-abled people. The NSS has various programs which look to give the differently-abled people
with a better chance of life.

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